OGRE  13.4 Object-Oriented Graphics Rendering Engine
Material Scripts

Sets the specific operation used to blend source and destination pixels together.

Material scripts offer you the ability to define complex materials in a script which can be reused easily. Whilst you could set up all materials for a scene in code using the methods of the Material and TextureLayer classes, in practice it's a bit unwieldy. Instead you can store material definitions in text files which can then be loaded whenever required.

It’s important to realise that materials are not loaded completely by the parsing process: only the definition is loaded, no textures or other resources are loaded. This is because it is common to have a large library of materials, but only use a relatively small subset of them in any one scene. To load every material completely in every script would therefore cause unnecessary memory overhead. You can access a ’deferred load’ Material in the normal way (Ogre::MaterialManager::getSingleton().getByName()), but you must call the ’load’ method before trying to use it. Ogre does this for you when using the normal material assignment methods of entities etc.

To start with, we only consider fixed-function materials which don’t use vertex, geometry or fragment programs, these are covered later:

// This is a comment
material walls/funkywall1
{
// first, preferred technique
technique
{
// first pass
pass
{
ambient 0.5 0.5 0.5
diffuse 1.0 1.0 1.0
// Texture unit 0
texture_unit
{
texture wibbly.jpg
scroll_anim 0.1 0.0
wave_xform scale sine 0.0 0.7 0.0 1.0
}
// Texture unit 1 (this is a multitexture pass)
texture_unit
{
texture wobbly.png
rotate_anim 0.25
}
{
// Do lighting calculations per-pixel
lighting_stage per_pixel
}
}
}
// Second technique, can be used as a fallback or LOD level
technique
{
// .. and so on
}
}

A material can be made up of many Techniques - a technique is one way of achieving the effect you are looking for. You can supply more than one technique in order to provide fallback approaches where a card does not have the ability to render the preferred technique, or where you wish to define lower level of detail versions of the material in order to conserve rendering power when objects are more distant.

Each technique can be made up of many Passes, that is a complete render of the object can be performed multiple times with different settings in order to produce composite effects. Ogre may also split the passes you have defined into many passes at runtime, if you define a pass which uses too many texture units for the card you are currently running on (note that it can only do this if you are not using a fragment program). Each pass has a number of top-level attributes such as ’ambient’ to set the amount & colour of the ambient light reflected by the material. Some of these options do not apply if you are using vertex programs, See Passes for more details.

Within each pass, there can be zero or many Texture Units in use. These define the texture to be used, and optionally some blending operations (which use multitexturing) and texture effects.

You can also reference vertex and fragment programs (or vertex and pixel shaders, if you want to use that terminology) in a pass with a given set of parameters. Programs themselves are declared in separate .program scripts (See GPU Program Scripts) and are used as described in Using GPU Programs in a Pass.

Material

The outermost section of a material definition does not have a lot of attributes of its own (most of the configurable parameters are within the child sections. However, it does have some, and here they are:

lod_strategy

Sets the name of the LOD strategy to use. Defaults to ’Distance’ which means LOD changes based on distance from the camera. Also supported is ’PixelCount’ which changes LOD based on an estimate of the screen-space pixels affected.

Format: lod_strategy <name>
Default: lod_strategy Distance

lod_values

This attribute defines the values used to control the LOD transition for this material. By setting this attribute, you indicate that you want this material to alter the Technique that it uses based on some metric, such as the distance from the camera, or the approximate screen space coverage. The exact meaning of these values is determined by the option you select for lod_strategy - it is a list of distances for the ’Distance’ strategy, and a list of pixel counts for the ’PixelCount’ strategy, for example. You must give it a list of values, in order from highest LOD value to lowest LOD value, each one indicating the point at which the material will switch to the next LOD. Implicitly, all materials activate LOD index 0 for values less than the first entry, so you do not have to specify ’0’ at the start of the list. You must ensure that there is at least one Technique with a lod_index value for each value in the list (so if you specify 3 values, you must have techniques for LOD indexes 0, 1, 2 and 3). Note you must always have at least one Technique at lod_index 0.

Format: lod_values <value0> <value1> <value2> ...
Default: none
Example:
lod_strategy Distance lod_values 300.0 600.5 1200

The above example would cause the material to use the best Technique at lod_index 0 up to a distance of 300 world units, the best from lod_index 1 from 300 up to 600, lod_index 2 from 600 to 1200, and lod_index 3 from 1200 upwards.

lod_distances

Deprecated:
This option is deprecated in favour of lod_values now.

This attribute controls whether objects using this material can have shadows cast upon them.

Default: on

Whether or not an object receives a shadow is the combination of a number of factors, See Shadows for full details; however this allows you to make a material opt-out of receiving shadows if required. Note that transparent materials never receive shadows so this option only has an effect on solid materials.

This attribute controls whether transparent materials can cast certain kinds of shadow.

Default: off

Whether or not an object casts a shadow is the combination of a number of factors, See Shadows for full details; however this allows you to make a transparent material cast shadows, when it would otherwise not. For example, when using texture shadows, transparent materials are normally not rendered into the shadow texture because they should not block light. This flag overrides that.

set_texture_alias

This attribute associates a texture alias with a texture name.

Format: set_texture_alias <alias name> <texture name>
Deprecated:
texture aliases are a restricted version of Script Variables, which you should instead.

Techniques

A "technique" section in your material script encapsulates a single method of rendering an object. The simplest of material definitions only contains a single technique, however since PC hardware varies quite greatly in it’s capabilities, you can only do this if you are sure that every card for which you intend to target your application will support the capabilities which your technique requires. In addition, it can be useful to define simpler ways to render a material if you wish to use material LOD, such that more distant objects use a simpler, less performance-hungry technique.

When a material is used for the first time, it is ’compiled’. That involves scanning the techniques which have been defined, and marking which of them are supportable using the current rendering API and graphics card. If no techniques are supportable, your material will render as blank white. The compilation examines a number of things, such as:

• The number of texture_unit entries in each pass
Note that if the number of texture_unit entries exceeds the number of texture units in the current graphics card, the technique may still be supportable so long as a fragment program is not being used. In this case, Ogre will split the pass which has too many entries into multiple passes for the less capable card, and the multitexture blend will be turned into a multipass blend (See colour_op_multipass_fallback).
• Whether vertex, geometry or fragment programs are used, and if so which syntax they use (e.g. vs_1_1, ps_2_x, arbfp1 etc.)
• Other effects like cube mapping and dot3 blending
• Whether the vendor or device name of the current graphics card matches some user-specified rules

In a material script, techniques must be listed in order of preference, i.e. the earlier techniques are preferred over the later techniques. This normally means you will list your most advanced, most demanding techniques first in the script, and list fallbacks afterwards.

To help clearly identify what each technique is used for, the technique can be named but its optional. Techniques not named within the script will take on a name that is the technique index number. For example: the first technique in a material is index 0, its name would be "0" if it was not given a name in the script. The technique name must be unique within the material or else the final technique is the resulting merge of all techniques with the same name in the material. A warning message is posted in the Ogre.log if this occurs. Named techniques can help when inheriting a material and modifying an existing technique: (See Script Inheritance)

Format: technique name

Techniques have only a small number of attributes of their own:

scheme

Sets the ’scheme’ this Technique belongs to. Material schemes are used to control top-level switching from one set of techniques to another. For example, you might use this to define ’high’, ’medium’ and ’low’ complexity levels on materials to allow a user to pick a performance / quality ratio. Another possibility is that you have a fully HDR-enabled pipeline for top machines, rendering all objects using unclamped shaders, and a simpler pipeline for others; this can be implemented using schemes. The active scheme is typically controlled at a viewport level, and the active one defaults to ’Default’.

Format: scheme <name>
Example: scheme hdr
Default: scheme Default

lod_index

Sets the level-of-detail (LOD) index this Technique belongs to.

Format: lod_index <number>
NB Valid values are 0 (highest level of detail) to 65535, although this is unlikely. You should not leave gaps in the LOD indexes between Techniques.
Example: lod_index 1

All techniques must belong to a LOD index, by default they all belong to index 0, i.e. the highest LOD. Increasing indexes denote lower levels of detail. You can (and often will) assign more than one technique to the same LOD index, what this means is that OGRE will pick the best technique of the ones listed at the same LOD index. For readability, it is advised that you list your techniques in order of LOD, then in order of preference, although the latter is the only prerequisite (OGRE determines which one is ’best’ by which one is listed first). You must always have at least one Technique at lod_index 0. The distance at which a LOD level is applied is determined by the lod_distances attribute of the containing material, See lod_distances for details.

Default: lod_index 0

Techniques also contain one or more Passes (and there must be at least one).

When using Texture-based Shadows you can specify an alternate material to use when rendering the object using this material into the shadow texture. This is like a more advanced version of using shadow_caster_vertex_program, however note that for the moment you are expected to render the shadow in one pass, i.e. only the first pass is respected.

When using Texture-based Shadows you can specify an alternate material to use when performing the receiver shadow pass. This is like a more advanced version of using shadow_receiver_vertex_program and shadow_receiver_fragment_program, however note that for the moment you are expected to render the shadow in one pass, i.e. only the first pass is respected.

Note
This explicit ’receiver’ pass is only done when you’re not using Integrated Texture Shadows - i.e. the shadow rendering is done separately (either as a modulative pass, or a masked light pass).

gpu_vendor_rule and gpu_device_rule

Although Ogre does a good job of detecting the capabilities of graphics cards and setting the supportability of techniques from that, occasionally card-specific behaviour exists which is not necessarily detectable and you may want to ensure that your materials go down a particular path to either use or avoid that behaviour. This is what these rules are for - you can specify matching rules so that a technique will be considered supportable only on cards from a particular vendor, or which match a device name pattern, or will be considered supported only if they don’t fulfil such matches. The format of the rules are as follows:

gpu_vendor_rule <include|exclude> <vendor_name>
gpu_device_rule <include|exclude> <device_pattern> [case_sensitive]

An ’include’ rule means that the technique will only be supported if one of the include rules is matched (if no include rules are provided, anything will pass). An ’exclude’ rules means that the technique is considered unsupported if any of the exclude rules are matched. You can provide as many rules as you like, although <vendor_name> and <device_pattern> must obviously be unique. The valid list of <vendor_name> values is currently ’nvidia’, ’ati’, ’intel’, ’s3’, ’matrox’ and ’3dlabs’. <device_pattern> can be any string, and you can use wildcards (’*’) if you need to match variants. Here’s an example:

gpu_vendor_rule include nvidia
gpu_vendor_rule include intel
gpu_device_rule exclude *950*

These rules, if all included in one technique, will mean that the technique will only be considered supported on graphics cards made by NVIDIA and Intel, and so long as the device name doesn’t have ’950’ in it.

Note that these rules can only mark a technique ’unsupported’ when it would otherwise be considered ’supported’ judging by the hardware capabilities. Even if a technique passes these rules, it is still subject to the usual hardware support tests.

Passes

A pass is a single render of the geometry in question; a single call to the rendering API with a certain set of rendering properties. A technique can have between one and 16 passes, although clearly the more passes you use, the more expensive the technique will be to render.

To help clearly identify what each pass is used for, the pass can be named but its optional. Passes not named within the script will take on a name that is the pass index number. For example: the first pass in a technique is index 0 so its name would be "0" if it was not given a name in the script. The pass name must be unique within the technique or else the final pass is the resulting merge of all passes with the same name in the technique. A warning message is posted in the Ogre.log if this occurs. Named passes can help when inheriting a material and modifying an existing pass: (See Script Inheritance)

Passes have a set of global attributes (described below) and optionally

Here are the attributes you can use in a ’pass’ section of a .material script:

Attribute Descriptions

ambient

Sets the ambient colour reflectance properties of this pass.

Format: ambient (<red> <green> <blue> [<alpha>]| vertexcolour)
NB valid colour values are between 0.0 and 1.0.

This property determines how much ambient light (directionless global light) is reflected. The default is full white, meaning objects are completely globally illuminated. Reduce this if you want to see diffuse or specular light effects, or change the blend of colours to make the object have a base colour other than white.

It is also possible to make the ambient reflectance track the vertex colour as defined in the mesh instead of the colour values.

Note
This setting has no effect if dynamic lighting is disabled (see Ogre::Pass::setLightingEnabled), or, if any texture layer has a Ogre::LBO_REPLACE attribute.
When using shader programs, you have to explicitely forward this property in the Parameter specification
Example: ambient 0.0 0.8 0.0
Default: ambient 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

diffuse

Sets the diffuse colour reflectance properties of this pass.

Format: diffuse (<red> <green> <blue> [<alpha>]| vertexcolour)
NB valid colour values are between 0.0 and 1.0.

This property determines how much diffuse light (light from instances of the Light class in the scene) is reflected. The default is full white, meaning objects reflect the maximum white light they can from Light objects.

It is also possible to make the diffuse reflectance track the vertex colour as defined in the mesh instead of the colour values.

Note
This setting has no effect if dynamic lighting is disabled (see Ogre::Pass::setLightingEnabled), or, if any texture layer has a Ogre::LBO_REPLACE attribute.
When using shader programs, you have to explicitely forward this property in the Parameter specification
Example: diffuse 1.0 0.5 0.5
Default: diffuse 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

specular

Sets the specular colour reflectance properties of this pass.

Format: specular (<red> <green> <blue> [<alpha>]| vertexcolour) <shininess>
NB valid colour values are between 0.0 and 1.0. Shininess can be any value greater than 0.

This property determines how much specular light (highlights from instances of the Light class in the scene) is reflected. The default is to reflect no specular light. The colour of the specular highlights is determined by the colour parameters, and the size of the highlights by the separate shininess parameter. It is also possible to make the specular reflectance track the vertex colour as defined in the mesh instead of the colour values.

The higher the value of the shininess parameter, the sharper the highlight i.e. the radius is smaller. Beware of using shininess values in the range of 0 to 1 since this causes the the specular colour to be applied to the whole surface that has the material applied to it. When the viewing angle to the surface changes, ugly flickering will also occur when shininess is in the range of 0 to 1. Shininess values between 1 and 128 work best in both DirectX and OpenGL renderers.

Note
This setting has no effect if dynamic lighting is disabled (see Ogre::Pass::setLightingEnabled), or, if any texture layer has a Ogre::LBO_REPLACE attribute.
When using shader programs, you have to explicitely forward this property in the Parameter specification
Example: specular 1.0 1.0 1.0 12.5
Default: specular 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

emissive

Sets the amount of self-illumination an object has.

Format: emissive (<red> <green> <blue> [<alpha>]| vertexcolour)
NB valid colour values are between 0.0 and 1.0.

Unlike the name suggests, this object doesn’t act as a light source for other objects in the scene (if you want it to, you have to create a light which is centered on the object). If an object is self-illuminating, it does not need external sources to light it, ambient or otherwise. It's like the object has it's own personal ambient light. This property is rarely useful since you can already specify per-pass ambient light, but is here for completeness.

It is also possible to make the emissive reflectance track the vertex colour as defined in the mesh instead of the colour values.

Note
This setting has no effect if dynamic lighting is disabled (see Ogre::Pass::setLightingEnabled), or, if any texture layer has a Ogre::LBO_REPLACE attribute.
When using shader programs, you have to explicitely forward this property in the Parameter specification
Example: emissive 1.0 0.0 0.0
Default: emissive 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

scene_blend

Sets the kind of blending this pass has with the existing contents of the scene.

Whereas the texture blending operations seen in the texture_unit entries are concerned with blending between texture layers, this blending is about combining the output of this pass as a whole with the existing contents of the rendering target. This blending therefore allows object transparency and other special effects.

There are 2 formats, one using predefined blend types, the other allowing a roll-your-own approach using source and destination factors.

Format1: scene_blend <blend_type>

This is the simpler form, where the most commonly used blending modes are enumerated using a single parameter.

Parameters
 blend_type add The colour of the rendering output is added to the scene. Good for explosions, flares, lights, ghosts etc. Equivalent to ’scene_blend one one’. modulate The colour of the rendering output is multiplied with the scene contents. Generally colours and darkens the scene, good for smoked glass, semi-transparent objects etc. Equivalent to ’scene_blend dest_colour zero’. colour_blend Colour the scene based on the brightness of the input colours, but don’t darken. Equivalent to ’scene_blend src_colour one_minus_src_colour’ alpha_blend The alpha value of the rendering output is used as a mask. Equivalent to ’scene_blend src_alpha one_minus_src_alpha’
Format2: scene_blend <sourceFactor> <destFactor>

This version of the method allows complete control over the blending operation, by specifying the source and destination blending factors.

By default the operation is Ogre::SBO_ADD, which creates this equation

$$final = (passOutput * sourceFactor) + (frameBuffer * destFactor)$$

Each of the factors is specified as one of Ogre::SceneBlendFactor.

By setting a different Ogre::SceneBlendOperation you can achieve a different effect.

Parameters
 sourceFactor The source factor in the above calculation, i.e. multiplied by the output of the Pass. destFactor The destination factor in the above calculation, i.e. multiplied by the Frame Buffer contents.

Valid values for both parameters are one of Ogre::SceneBlendFactor without the SBF_ prefix. E.g. SBF_DEST_COLOUR becomes dest_colour.

Example: scene_blend one one_minus_dest_alpha
Default: scene_blend one zero (opaque)

Also see separate_scene_blend.

separate_scene_blend

This option operates in exactly the same way as scene_blend, except that it allows you to specify the operations to perform between the rendered pixel and the frame buffer separately for colour and alpha components. By nature this option is only useful when rendering to targets which have an alpha channel which you’ll use for later processing, such as a render texture.

Format1: separate_scene_blend <simple_colour_blend> <simple_alpha_blend>

This example would add colour components but multiply alpha components. The blend modes available are as in scene_blend. The more advanced form is also available:

Format2: separate_scene_blend <colour_src_factor> <colour_dest_factor> <alpha_src_factor> <alpha_dest_factor>
Example: separate_scene_blend one one_minus_dest_alpha one one

Again the options available in the second format are the same as those in the second format of scene_blend.

scene_blend_op

This directive changes the operation which is applied between the two components of the scene blending equation

Format: scene_blend_op <op>
Ogre::ColourBlendState
Parameters
 op The blending operation mode to use for this pass You may change this to ’add’, ’subtract’, ’reverse_subtract’, ’min’ or ’max’.

separate_scene_blend_op

This directive is as scene_blend_op, except that you can set the operation for colour and alpha separately.

depth_check

Sets whether or not this pass renders with depth-buffer checking on or not.

Format: depth_check <on|off>

If depth-buffer checking is on, whenever a pixel is about to be written to the frame buffer the depth buffer is checked to see if the pixel is in front of all other pixels written at that point. If not, the pixel is not written.

If depth checking is off, pixels are written no matter what has been rendered before. Also see setDepthFunction for more advanced depth check configuration.

Ogre::CompareFunction

Default: depth_check on

depth_write

Sets whether or not this pass renders with depth-buffer writing on or not.

Format: depth_write <on|off>

If depth-buffer writing is on, whenever a pixel is written to the frame buffer the depth buffer is updated with the depth value of that new pixel, thus affecting future rendering operations if future pixels are behind this one.

If depth writing is off, pixels are written without updating the depth buffer Depth writing should normally be on but can be turned off when rendering static backgrounds or when rendering a collection of transparent objects at the end of a scene so that they overlap each other correctly.

Default: depth_write on

depth_func

Sets the function used to compare depth values when depth checking is on.

Format: depth_func <func>

If depth checking is enabled (see setDepthCheckEnabled) a comparison occurs between the depth value of the pixel to be written and the current contents of the buffer. This comparison is normally Ogre::CMPF_LESS_EQUAL.

Parameters
 func one of Ogre::CompareFunction without the CMPF_ prefix. E.g. CMPF_LESS_EQUAL becomes less_equal.
Default: depth_func less_equal

depth_bias

Sets the bias applied to the depth value of this pass.

Format: depth_bias <constantBias> [<slopeScaleBias>]

When polygons are coplanar, you can get problems with 'depth fighting' where the pixels from the two polys compete for the same screen pixel. This is particularly a problem for decals (polys attached to another surface to represent details such as bulletholes etc.).

A way to combat this problem is to use a depth bias to adjust the depth buffer value used for the decal such that it is slightly higher than the true value, ensuring that the decal appears on top. There are two aspects to the biasing, a constant bias value and a slope-relative biasing value, which varies according to the maximum depth slope relative to the camera, ie:

$$finalBias = maxSlope * slopeScaleBias + constantBias$$

Slope scale biasing is relative to the angle of the polygon to the camera, which makes for a more appropriate bias value, but this is ignored on some older hardware. Constant biasing is expressed as a factor of the minimum depth value, so a value of 1 will nudge the depth by one ’notch’ if you will.

Parameters
 constantBias The constant bias value slopeScaleBias The slope-relative bias value

Also see iteration_depth_bias

iteration_depth_bias

Sets an additional bias derived from the number of times a given pass has been iterated. Operates just like depth_bias except that it applies an additional bias factor to the base depth_bias value, multiplying the provided value by the number of times this pass has been iterated before, through one of the iteration variants. So the first time the pass will get the depth_bias value, the second time it will get depth_bias + iteration_depth_bias, the third time it will get depth_bias + iteration_depth_bias * 2, and so on. The default is zero.

Format: iteration_depth_bias <bias_per_iteration>

alpha_rejection

Sets the way the pass will have use alpha to totally reject pixels from the pipeline.

Format: alpha_rejection <function> <value>
Example: alpha_rejection greater_equal 128

The function parameter can be any of the options listed in the material depth_function attribute. The value parameter can theoretically be any value between 0 and 255, but is best limited to 0 or 128 for hardware compatibility.

Note
Only has an effect with the fixed-function pipeline or the Runtime Shader Generation
Default: alpha_rejection always_pass

alpha_to_coverage

Sets whether this pass will use ’alpha to coverage’,

Format: alpha_to_coverage <on|off>

Alpha to coverage performs multisampling on the edges of alpha-rejected textures to produce a smoother result. It is only supported when multisampling is already enabled on the render target, and when the hardware supports alpha to coverage (see RenderSystemCapabilities). The common use for alpha to coverage is foliage rendering and chain-link fence style textures.

Default: alpha_to_coverage off

light_scissor

Sets whether when rendering this pass, rendering will be limited to a screen-space scissor rectangle representing the coverage of the light(s) being used in this pass.

Format: light_scissor <on|off>
Default: light_scissor off

In order to cut down on fillrate when you have a number of fixed-range lights in the scene, you can enable this option to request that during rendering, only the region of the screen which is covered by the lights is rendered. This region is the screen-space rectangle covering the union of the spheres making up the light ranges. Directional lights are ignored for this.

This is only likely to be useful for multipass additive lighting algorithms, where the scene has already been 'seeded' with an ambient pass and this pass is just adding light in affected areas.

When using Ogre::SHADOWTYPE_STENCIL_ADDITIVE or Ogre::SHADOWTYPE_TEXTURE_ADDITIVE, this option is implicitly used for all per-light passes and does not need to be specified. If you are not using shadows or are using a modulative or Integrated Texture Shadows then this could be useful.

light_clip_planes

Sets whether when rendering this pass, triangle setup will be limited to clipping volume covered by the light.

Format: light_clip_planes <on|off>
Default: light_clip_planes off

This option will only function if there is a single non-directional light being used in this pass. If there is more than one light, or only directional lights, then no clipping will occur. If there are no lights at all then the objects won’t be rendered at all.

In order to cut down on the geometry set up to render this pass when you have a single fixed-range light being rendered through it, you can enable this option to request that during triangle setup, clip planes are defined to bound the range of the light. In the case of a point light these planes form a cube, and in the case of a spotlight they form a pyramid. Directional lights are never clipped.

This option is only likely to be useful for multipass additive lighting algorithms, where the scene has already been 'seeded' with an ambient pass and this pass is just adding light in affected areas. In addition, it will only be honoured if there is exactly one non-directional light being used in this pass. Also, these clip planes override any user clip planes set on Camera.

When using Ogre::SHADOWTYPE_STENCIL_ADDITIVE or Ogre::SHADOWTYPE_TEXTURE_ADDITIVE, this option is automatically used for all per-light passes if you enable Ogre::SceneManager::setShadowUseLightClipPlanes and does not need to be specified. It is disabled by default since clip planes have a cost of their own which may not always exceed the benefits they give you. Generally the smaller your lights are the more chance you’ll see a benefit rather than a penalty from clipping.

Note
Only has an effect with the fixed-function pipeline. Exceptions:
• with D3D9, clip planes are even available when shaders are used
• with GL1, shaders must write to gl_ClipVertex

illumination_stage

When using an additive lighting mode (Ogre::SHADOWTYPE_STENCIL_ADDITIVE or Ogre::SHADOWTYPE_TEXTURE_ADDITIVE), the scene is rendered in 3 discrete stages, ambient (or pre-lighting), per-light (once per light, with shadowing) and decal (or post-lighting). Usually OGRE figures out how to categorise your passes automatically, but there are some effects you cannot achieve without manually controlling the illumination. For example specular effects are muted by the typical sequence because all textures are saved until the Ogre::IS_DECAL stage which mutes the specular effect. Instead, you could do texturing within the per-light stage if it's possible for your material and thus add the specular on after the decal texturing, and have no post-light rendering.

If you assign an illumination stage to a pass you have to assign it to all passes in the technique otherwise it will be ignored. Also note that whilst you can have more than one pass in each group, they cannot alternate, ie all ambient passes will be before all per-light passes, which will also be before all decal passes. Within their categories the passes will retain their ordering though.

Format: illumination_stage <ambient|per_light|decal> Default: none (autodetect)

normalise_normals

Sets whether or not this pass renders with all vertex normals being automatically re-normalised.

Format: normalise_normals <on|off>

This option can be used to prevent lighting variations when scaling an object - normally because this scaling is hardware based, the normals get scaled too which causes lighting to become inconsistent. By default the SceneManager detects scaled objects and does this for you, but this has an overhead so you might want to turn that off through Ogre::SceneManager::setNormaliseNormalsOnScale(false) and only do it per-Pass when you need to.

Default: normalise_normals off

transparent_sorting

Sets if transparent textures should be sorted by depth or not.

Format: transparent_sorting <on|off|force>

By default all transparent materials are sorted such that renderables furthest away from the camera are rendered first. This is usually the desired behaviour but in certain cases this depth sorting may be unnecessary and undesirable. If for example it is necessary to ensure the rendering order does not change from one frame to the next. In this case you could set the value to ’off’ to prevent sorting.

You can also use the keyword ’force’ to force transparent sorting on, regardless of other circumstances. Usually sorting is only used when the pass is also transparent, and has a depth write or read which indicates it cannot reliably render without sorting. By using ’force’, you tell OGRE to sort this pass no matter what other circumstances are present.

Default: transparent_sorting on

cull_hardware

Sets the hardware culling mode for this pass.

Format: cull_hardware <clockwise|anticlockwise|none>

A typical way for the rendering engine to cull triangles is based on the 'vertex winding' of triangles. Vertex winding refers to the direction in which the vertices are passed or indexed to in the rendering operation as viewed from the camera, and will either be clockwise or anticlockwise (that's 'counterclockwise' for you Americans out there ;) The default is Ogre::CULL_CLOCKWISE i.e. that only triangles whose vertices are passed/indexed in anticlockwise order are rendered - this is a common approach and is used in 3D studio models for example. You can alter this culling mode if you wish but it is not advised unless you know what you are doing.

You may wish to use the Ogre::CULL_NONE option for mesh data that you cull yourself where the vertex winding is uncertain or for creating 2-sided passes.

Default: cull_hardware clockwise
NB this is the same as OpenGL’s default but the opposite of Direct3D’s default (because Ogre uses a right-handed coordinate system like OpenGL).

cull_software

Sets the software culling mode for this pass.

Format: cull_software <back|front|none>

In some situations you want to use manual culling of triangles rather than sending the triangles to the hardware and letting it cull them. This setting only takes effect on SceneManager's that use it (since it is best used on large groups of planar world geometry rather than on movable geometry since this would be expensive), but if used can cull geometry before it is sent to the hardware.

In this case the culling is based on whether the ’back’ or ’front’ of the triangle is facing the camera - this definition is based on the face normal (a vector which sticks out of the front side of the polygon perpendicular to the face). Since Ogre expects face normals to be on anticlockwise side of the face, Ogre::MANUAL_CULL_BACK is the software equivalent of Ogre::CULL_CLOCKWISE setting, which is why they are both the default. The naming is different to reflect the way the culling is done though, since most of the time face normals are pre-calculated and they don’t have to be the way Ogre expects - you could set Ogre::CULL_NONE and completely cull in software based on your own face normals, if you have the right SceneManager which uses them.

Default: cull_software back

lighting

Sets whether or not dynamic lighting is turned on for this pass or not.

Format: lighting <on|off>

Turning dynamic lighting off makes any ambient, diffuse, specular, emissive and shading properties for this pass redundant. If lighting is turned off, all objects rendered using the pass will be fully lit. When lighting is turned on, objects are lit according to their vertex normals for diffuse and specular light, and globally for ambient and emissive.

Default: lighting on

Sets the kind of shading which should be used for representing dynamic lighting for this pass.

When dynamic lighting is turned on, the effect is to generate colour values at each vertex. Whether these values are interpolated across the face (and how) depends on this setting. The default shading method is Ogre::SO_GOURAUD.

Parameters
 mode one of Ogre::ShadeOptions without the SO_ prefix. E.g. SO_FLAT becomes flat.

polygon_mode

Sets how polygons should be rasterised, i.e. whether they should be filled in, or just drawn as lines or points. The default shading method is Ogre::PM_SOLID.

Format: polygon_mode <solid|wireframe|points>
Parameters
 mode one of Ogre::PolygonMode without the PM_ prefix. E.g. PM_SOLID becomes solid.
Default: polygon_mode solid

polygon_mode_overrideable

Sets whether or not the polygon_mode set on this pass can be downgraded by the camera

Format: polygon_mode_overrideable <override>
Parameters
 override If set to false, this pass will always be rendered at its own chosen polygon mode no matter what the camera says. The default is true.

fog_override

Tells the pass whether it should override the scene fog settings, and enforce it’s own. Very useful for things that you don’t want to be affected by fog when the rest of the scene is fogged, or vice versa.

Format: fog_override <override?> [<type> <colour> <density> <start> <end>]
Default: fog_override false

If you specify ’true’ for the first parameter and you supply the rest of the parameters, you are telling the pass to use these fog settings in preference to the scene settings, whatever they might be. If you specify ’true’ but provide no further parameters, you are telling this pass to never use fogging no matter what the scene says.

Parameters
 type none = No fog, equivalent of just using ’fog_override true’ linear = Linear fog from the and distances exp = Fog increases exponentially from the camera (fog = 1/e^(distance * density)), use param to control it exp2 = Fog increases at the square of FOG_EXP, i.e. even quicker (fog = 1/e^(distance * density)^2), use param to control it colour Sequence of 3 floating point values from 0 to 1 indicating the red, green and blue intensities density The density parameter used in the ’exp’ or ’exp2’ fog types. Not used in linear mode but param must still be there as a placeholder start The start distance from the camera of linear fog. Must still be present in other modes, even though it is not used. end The end distance from the camera of linear fog. Must still be present in other modes, even though it is not used.
Example: fog_override true exp 1 1 1 0.002 100 10000

colour_write

Sets whether this pass renders with colour writing on or not. Alternatively, it can also be used to enable/disable colour writing specific channels. In the second format, the parameters are in the red, green, blue, alpha order.

Format 1: colour_write <on|off>
Format 2: colour_write <on|off> <on|off> <on|off> <on|off>

If colour writing is off no visible pixels are written to the screen during this pass. You might think this is useless, but if you render with colour writing off, and with very minimal other settings, you can use this pass to initialise the depth buffer before subsequently rendering other passes which fill in the colour data. This can give you significant performance boosts on some newer cards, especially when using complex fragment programs, because if the depth check fails then the fragment program is never run.

Default: colour_write on

start_light

Sets the first light which will be considered for use with this pass.

Format: start_light <number>

Normally the lights passed to a pass will start from the beginning of the light list for this object. This option allows you to make this pass start from a higher light index, for example if one of your earlier passes could deal with lights 0-3, and this pass dealt with lights 4+. This option also has an interaction with pass iteration, in that if you choose to iterate this pass per light too, the iteration will only begin from light 4.

Default: start_light 0

max_lights

Sets the maximum number of lights which will be considered for use with this pass.

Format: max_lights <number>

The maximum number of lights which can be used when rendering fixed-function materials is set by the rendering system, and is typically set at 8. When you are using the programmable pipeline (See Using Vertex/Geometry/Fragment Programs in a Pass) this limit is dependent on the program you are running, or, if you use ’iteration once_per_light’ or a variant (See iteration), it effectively only bounded by the number of passes you are willing to use. If you are not using pass iteration, the light limit applies once for this pass. If you are using pass iteration, the light limit applies across all iterations of this pass - for example if you have 12 lights in range with an ’iteration once_per_light’ setup but your max_lights is set to 4 for that pass, the pass will only iterate 4 times.

Default: max_lights 8

iteration

Sets whether or not this pass is iterated, i.e. issued more than once.

Format 1: iteration <once | once_per_light> [lightType]
Format 2: iteration <number> [<per_light> [lightType]
Format 3: iteration <number> [<per_n_lights> <num_lights> [lightType]
Examples:
iteration once

The pass is only executed once which is the default behaviour.

iteration once_per_light point

The pass is executed once for each point light.

iteration 5

The render state for the pass will be setup and then the draw call will execute 5 times.

iteration 5 per_light point

The render state for the pass will be setup and then the draw call will execute 5 times. This will be done for each point light.

iteration 1 per_n_lights 2 point

The render state for the pass will be setup and the draw call executed once for every 2 lights.

By default, passes are only issued once. However, if you use the programmable pipeline, or you wish to exceed the normal limits on the number of lights which are supported, you might want to use the once_per_light option. In this case, only light index 0 is ever used, and the pass is issued multiple times, each time with a different light in light index 0. Clearly this will make the pass more expensive, but it may be the only way to achieve certain effects such as per-pixel lighting effects which take into account 1..n lights.

Using a number instead of "once" instructs the pass to iterate more than once after the render state is setup. The render state is not changed after the initial setup so repeated draw calls are very fast and ideal for passes using programmable shaders that must iterate more than once with the same render state i.e. shaders that do fur, motion blur, special filtering.

If you use once_per_light, you should also add an ambient pass to the technique before this pass, otherwise when no lights are in range of this object it will not get rendered at all; this is important even when you have no ambient light in the scene, because you would still want the objects silhouette to appear.

The lightType parameter to the attribute only applies if you use once_per_light, per_light, or per_n_lights and restricts the pass to being run for lights of a single type (either ’point’, ’directional’ or ’spot’). In the example, the pass will be run once per point light. This can be useful because when you’re writing a vertex / fragment program it is a lot easier if you can assume the kind of lights you’ll be dealing with. However at least point and directional lights can be dealt with in one way. Default: iteration once

Example: Simple Fur shader material script that uses a second pass with 10 iterations to grow the fur:

// GLSL simple Fur
vertex_program GLSLDemo/FurVS glsl
{
source fur.vert
default_params
{
param_named_auto lightPosition light_position_object_space 0
param_named_auto eyePosition camera_position_object_space
param_named_auto passNumber pass_number
param_named_auto multiPassNumber pass_iteration_number
param_named furLength float 0.15
}
}
fragment_program GLSLDemo/FurFS glsl
{
source fur.frag
default_params
{
param_named Ka float 0.2
param_named Kd float 0.5
param_named Ks float 0.0
param_named furTU int 0
}
}
material Fur
{
technique GLSL
{
pass base_coat
{
ambient 0.7 0.7 0.7
diffuse 0.5 0.8 0.5
specular 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5
vertex_program_ref GLSLDemo/FurVS
{
}
fragment_program_ref GLSLDemo/FurFS
{
}
texture_unit
{
texture Fur.tga
tex_coord_set 0
filtering trilinear
}
}
pass grow_fur
{
ambient 0.7 0.7 0.7
diffuse 0.8 1.0 0.8
specular 1.0 1.0 1.0 64
depth_write off
scene_blend src_alpha one
iteration 10
vertex_program_ref GLSLDemo/FurVS
{
}
fragment_program_ref GLSLDemo/FurFS
{
}
texture_unit
{
texture Fur.tga
tex_coord_set 0
filtering trilinear
}
}
}
}
Note
use gpu program auto parameters pass_number and pass_iteration_number to tell the vertex, geometry or fragment program the pass number and iteration number.

point_size

This setting allows you to change the size of points when rendering a point list, or a list of point sprites. The interpretation of this command depends on the Ogre::Pass::setPointAttenuation option - if it is off (the default), the point size is in screen pixels, if it is on, it expressed as normalised screen coordinates (1.0 is the height of the screen) when the point is at the origin.

Note
Some drivers have an upper limit on the size of points they support - this can even vary between APIs on the same card! Don't rely on point sizes that cause the point sprites to get very large on screen, since they may get clamped on some cards. Upper sizes can range from 64 to 256 pixels.
Format: point_size <size> Default: point_size 1.0
Note
Only has an effect with the fixed-function pipeline or the Runtime Shader Generation

point_sprites

This setting specifies whether or not hardware point sprite rendering is enabled for this pass. Enabling it means that a point list is rendered as a list of quads rather than a list of dots. It is very useful to use this option if you are using a BillboardSet and only need to use point oriented billboards which are all of the same size. You can also use it for any other point list render.

Format: point_sprites <on|off> Default: point_sprites off

point_size_attenuation

Defines whether point size is attenuated with view space distance, and in what fashion.

Format: point_size_attenuation <enabled> [constant linear quadratic] Default: point_size_attenuation off

When performing point rendering or point sprite rendering, point size can be attenuated with distance. The equation for doing this is

$$attenuation = 1 / (constant + linear * dist + quadratic * d^2)$$

For example, to disable distance attenuation (constant screensize) you would set constant to 1, and linear and quadratic to 0. A standard perspective attenuation would be 0, 1, 0 respectively.

The resulting size is clamped to the minimum and maximum point size.

Parameters
 enabled Whether point attenuation is enabled constant,linear,quadratic Parameters to the attenuation function defined above
Note
Only has an effect with the fixed-function pipeline or the Runtime Shader Generation

point_size_min

Sets the minimum point size after attenuation (point_size_attenuation). For details on the size metrics, See point_size.

Format: point_size_min <size> Default: point_size_min 0

point_size_max

Sets the maximum point size after attenuation (point_size_attenuation). For details on the size metrics, See point_size. A value of 0 means the maximum is set to the same as the max size reported by the current card.

Format: point_size_max <size> Default: point_size_max 0

line_width

This property determines what width is used to render lines.

Note
some drivers only support a value of 1.0 here
Format: line_width <width>
Default: line_width 1

Texture Units

Here are the attributes you can use in a texture_unit section of a .material script:

Available Texture Unit Attributes

Note
Furthermore all attributes of Samplers are available. Using any of them will create a new Ogre::Sampler local to the texture unit. This means that any changes you made to the Default Sampler e.g. via Ogre::MaterialManager::setDefaultTextureFiltering have no effect anymore. If several texture units share the same Sampler settings, you are encouraged to reference the same Sampler via sampler_ref for improved performance.

You can also use nested section in order to use a special add-ins

texture_alias

Sets the alias name for this texture unit.

Format: texture_alias <name>
Example: texture_alias NormalMap
Deprecated:
texture aliases are a restricted version of Script Variables, which you should instead.

texture

Sets the name of the static texture image this layer will use.

Format: texture <texturename> [<type>] [unlimited | numMipMaps] [<PixelFormat>] [gamma]
Example: texture funkywall.jpg

This setting is mutually exclusive with the anim_texture attribute. Note that the texture file cannot include spaces. Those of you Windows users who like spaces in filenames, please get over it and use underscores instead.

Parameters

anim_texture

Sets the images to be used in an animated texture layer. There are 2 formats, one for implicitly determined image names, one for explicitly named images.

Format1 (short): anim_texture <name> <numFrames> <duration>

Animated textures are just a series of images making up the frames of the animation. All the images must be the same size, and their names must have a frame number appended before the extension, e.g. if you specify a name of "flame.jpg" with 3 frames, the image names must be "flame_0.jpg", "flame_1.jpg" and "flame_2.jpg".

You can change the active frame on a texture layer by calling the Ogre::TextureUnitState::setCurrentFrame method.

Note
If you can't make your texture images conform to the naming standard laid out here, you can call the alternative setAnimatedTextureName method which takes an array of names instead.
Parameters
 name The base name of the textures to use e.g. flame.jpg for frames flame_0.jpg, flame_1.jpg etc. numFrames The number of frames in the sequence. duration The length of time it takes to display the whole animation sequence, in seconds. If 0, no automatic transition occurs.
Example: anim_texture flame.jpg 5 2.5
Format2 (long): anim_texture <frame1> <frame2> ... <duration>
Example: anim_texture flamestart.jpg flamemore.png flameagain.jpg moreflame.jpg lastflame.tga 2.5

This sets up the same duration animation but from 5 separately named image files. The first format is more concise, but the second is provided if you cannot make your images conform to the naming standard required for it.

Default: none

cubic_texture

Sets the images used in a cubic texture, i.e. one made up of 6 individual images making up the faces of a cube or 1 cube texture if supported by the texture format(DDS for example) and rendersystem.. These kinds of textures are used for reflection maps (if hardware supports cubic reflection maps) or skyboxes. There are 2 formats, a brief format expecting image names of a particular format and a more flexible but longer format for arbitrarily named textures.

Format1 (short): cubic_texture <base_name> <combinedUVW|separateUV>
Deprecated:
use the format 'texture <basename> cubic' instead

The base_name in this format is something like ’skybox.jpg’, and the system will expect you to provide skybox_fr.jpg, skybox_bk.jpg, skybox_up.jpg, skybox_dn.jpg, skybox_lf.jpg, and skybox_rt.jpg for the individual faces.

Format2 (long): cubic_texture <front> <back> <left> <right> <up> <down> <combinedUVW|separateUV>

In this case each face is specified explicitly, in case you don’t want to conform to the image naming standards above. You can only use this for the separateUV version since the combinedUVW version requires a single texture name to be assigned to the combined 3D texture (see below).

In both cases the final parameter means the following:

separateUV

Deprecated:
Use real cubic textures due to hardware support

The 6 textures are kept separate but are all referenced by this single texture layer. One texture at a time is active (they are actually stored as 6 frames), and they are addressed using standard 2D UV coordinates.

combinedUVW

The 6 textures are combined into a single ’cubic’ texture map which is then addressed using 3D texture coordinates.

content_type

Tells this texture unit where it should get its content from. The default is to get texture content from a named texture, as defined with the texture, cubic_texture, anim_texture attributes. However you can also pull texture information from other automated sources.

Format: content_type <type> [<compositorName>] [<textureName>] [<mrtIndex>]
Parameters

Only valid when content type is compositor.

Parameters
 compositorName The name of the compositor to reference. textureName The name of the texture to reference. mrtIndex The index of the wanted texture, if referencing an MRT.
Example: content_type compositor DepthCompositor OutputTexture
Default: content_type named

tex_coord_set

Sets which texture coordinate set is to be used for this texture layer. A mesh can define multiple sets of texture coordinates, this sets which one this material uses.

Format: tex_coord_set <set_num>
Note
Only has an effect with the fixed-function pipeline or the Runtime Shader Generation
Example: tex_coord_set 2
Default: tex_coord_set 0

colour_op

Note
Only has an effect with the fixed-function pipeline or the Runtime Shader Generation

Determines how the colour of this texture layer is combined with the one below it (or the lighting effect on the geometry if this is the first layer).

Format: colour_op <op>

This method is the simplest way to blend texture layers, because it requires only one parameter, gives you the most common blending types, and automatically sets up 2 blending methods: one for if single-pass multitexturing hardware is available, and another for if it is not and the blending must be achieved through multiple rendering passes. It is, however, quite limited and does not expose the more flexible multitexturing operations, simply because these can't be automatically supported in multipass fallback mode. If want to use the fancier options, use Ogre::TextureUnitState::setColourOperationEx, but you'll either have to be sure that enough multitexturing units will be available, or you should explicitly set a fallback using Ogre::TextureUnitState::setColourOpMultipassFallback.

Note
The default method is Ogre::LBO_MODULATE for all layers.
Parameters
 op One of the Ogre::LayerBlendOperation enumerated blending types. Without the LBO_ prefix. E.g. LBO_REPLACE becomes replace.
Default: colour_op modulate

colour_op_ex

Note
Only has an effect with the fixed-function pipeline or the Runtime Shader Generation
Format: colour_op_ex <op> <source1> <source2> [<manualBlend>] [<arg1>] [<arg2>]
Example colour_op_ex add_signed src_manual src_current 0.5

This is an extended version of the Ogre::TextureUnitState::setColourOperation method which allows extremely detailed control over the blending applied between this and earlier layers. See the Warning below about the issues between mulitpass and multitexturing that using this method can create.

Texture colour operations determine how the final colour of the surface appears when rendered. Texture units are used to combine colour values from various sources (ie. the diffuse colour of the surface from lighting calculations, combined with the colour of the texture). This method allows you to specify the 'operation' to be used, ie. the calculation such as adds or multiplies, and which values to use as arguments, such as a fixed value or a value from a previous calculation.

The defaults for each layer are:

ie. each layer takes the colour results of the previous layer, and multiplies them with the new texture being applied. Bear in mind that colours are RGB values from 0.0 - 1.0 so multiplying them together will result in values in the same range, 'tinted' by the multiply. Note however that a straight multiply normally has the effect of darkening the textures - for this reason there are brightening operations like Ogre::LBX_MODULATE_X2. See the Ogre::LayerBlendOperation and Ogre::LayerBlendSource enumerated types for full details.

The final 3 parameters are only required if you decide to pass values manually into the operation, i.e. you want one or more of the inputs to the colour calculation to come from a fixed value that you supply. Hence you only need to fill these in if you supply Ogre::LBS_MANUAL to the corresponding source, or use the Ogre::LBX_BLEND_MANUAL operation.

Warning
Ogre tries to use multitexturing hardware to blend texture layers together. However, if it runs out of texturing units (e.g. 2 of a GeForce2, 4 on a GeForce3) it has to fall back on multipass rendering, i.e. rendering the same object multiple times with different textures. This is both less efficient and there is a smaller range of blending operations which can be performed. For this reason, if you use this method you MUST also call Ogre::TextureUnitState::setColourOpMultipassFallback to specify which effect you want to fall back on if sufficient hardware is not available.
If you wish to avoid having to do this, use the simpler Ogre::TextureUnitState::setColourOperation method which allows less flexible blending options but sets up the multipass fallback automatically, since it only allows operations which have direct multipass equivalents.
Parameters
 op The operation to be used, e.g. modulate (multiply), add, subtract. source1 The source of the first colour to the operation e.g. texture colour. source2 The source of the second colour to the operation e.g. current surface colour. arg1 Manually supplied colour value (only required if source1 = LBS_MANUAL). arg2 Manually supplied colour value (only required if source2 = LBS_MANUAL). manualBlend Manually supplied 'blend' value - only required for operations which require manual blend e.g. LBX_BLEND_MANUAL.

Each parameter can be one of Ogre::LayerBlendOperationEx or Ogre::LayerBlendSource without the prefix. E.g. LBX_MODULATE_X4 becomes modulate_x4.

Default: none (colour_op modulate)

colour_op_multipass_fallback

Sets the multipass fallback operation for this layer, if you used colour_op_ex and not enough multitexturing hardware is available.

Format: colour_op_multipass_fallback <src_factor> <dest_factor>
Example: colour_op_multipass_fallback one one_minus_dest_alpha

Because some effects exposed using Ogre::TextureUnitState::setColourOperationEx are only supported under multitexturing hardware, if the hardware is lacking the system must fallback on multipass rendering, which unfortunately doesn't support as many effects. This method is for you to specify the fallback operation which most suits you.

You'll notice that the interface is the same as the Ogre::TMaterial::setSceneBlending method; this is because multipass rendering IS effectively scene blending, since each layer is rendered on top of the last using the same mechanism as making an object transparent, it's just being rendered in the same place repeatedly to get the multitexture effect.

If you use the simpler (and hence less flexible) Ogre::TextureUnitState::setColourOperation method you don't need to call this as the system sets up the fallback for you.

Note
This option has no effect in the programmable pipeline, because there is no multipass fallback and multitexture blending is handled by the fragment shader.

alpha_op_ex

Note
Only has an effect with the fixed-function pipeline or the Runtime Shader Generation
Format: alpha_op_ex <op> <source1> <source2> [<manualBlend>] [<arg1>] [<arg2>]

This works in exactly the same way as setColourOperationEx, except that the effect is applied to the level of alpha (i.e. transparency) of the texture rather than its colour. When the alpha of a texel (a pixel on a texture) is 1.0, it is opaque, whereas it is fully transparent if the alpha is 0.0. Please refer to the Ogre::TextureUnitState::setColourOperationEx method for more info.

Parameters
 op The operation to be used, e.g. modulate (multiply), add, subtract source1 The source of the first alpha value to the operation e.g. texture alpha source2 The source of the second alpha value to the operation e.g. current surface alpha arg1 Manually supplied alpha value (only required if source1 = Ogre::LBS_MANUAL) arg2 Manually supplied alpha value (only required if source2 = Ogre::LBS_MANUAL) manualBlend Manually supplied 'blend' value - only required for operations which require manual blend e.g. Ogre::LBX_BLEND_MANUAL

env_map

Turns on/off texture coordinate effect that makes this layer an environment map.

Note
Only has an effect with the fixed-function pipeline or the Runtime Shader Generation
Format: env_map <off|spherical|planar|cubic_reflection|cubic_normal>

Environment maps make an object look reflective by using automatic texture coordinate generation depending on the relationship between the objects vertices or normals and the eye.

spherical

A spherical environment map. Requires a single texture which is either a fish-eye lens view of the reflected scene, or some other texture which looks good as a spherical map (a texture of glossy highlights is popular especially in car sims). This effect is based on the relationship between the eye direction and the vertex normals of the object, so works best when there are a lot of gradually changing normals, i.e. curved objects.

planar

Similar to the spherical environment map, but the effect is based on the position of the vertices in the viewport rather than vertex normals. This effect is therefore useful for planar geometry (where a spherical env_map would not look good because the normals are all the same) or objects without normals.

cubic_reflection

A more advanced form of reflection mapping which uses a group of 6 textures making up the inside of a cube, each of which is a view if the scene down each axis. Works extremely well in all cases but has a higher technical requirement from the card than spherical mapping. Requires that you bind a cubic_texture to this texture unit and use the ’combinedUVW’ option.

cubic_normal

Generates 3D texture coordinates containing the camera space normal vector from the normal information held in the vertex data. Again, full use of this feature requires a cubic_texture with the ’combinedUVW’ option.

Default: env_map off

scroll

Sets the translation offset of the texture, ie scrolls the texture.

Format: scroll <u> <v>

This method sets the translation element of the texture transformation, and is easier to use than setTextureTransform if you are combining translation, scaling and rotation in your texture transformation. If you want to animate these values use Ogre::TextureUnitState::setScrollAnimation

Parameters
 u The amount the texture should be moved horizontally (u direction). v The amount the texture should be moved vertically (v direction).
Note
When using shader programs, you have to explicitely forward this property in the Parameter specification

scroll_anim

Sets up an animated scroll for the texture layer.

Format: scroll_anim <uSpeed> <vSpeed>

Useful for creating constant scrolling effects on a texture layer (for varying scrolls, see Ogre::TextureUnitState::setTransformAnimation).

Parameters
 uSpeed The number of horizontal loops per second (+ve=moving right, -ve = moving left). vSpeed The number of vertical loops per second (+ve=moving up, -ve= moving down).
Note
When using shader programs, you have to explicitely forward this property in the Parameter specification

rotate

Sets the anticlockwise rotation factor applied to texture coordinates.

Format: rotate <angle_in_deg>

This sets a fixed rotation angle - if you wish to animate this, use Ogre::TextureUnitState::setRotateAnimation

Parameters
 angle The angle of rotation (anticlockwise).
Note
When using shader programs, you have to explicitely forward this property in the Parameter specification

rotate_anim

Sets up an animated texture rotation for this layer.

Format: rotate_anim <speed>

Useful for constant rotations (for varying rotations, see Ogre::TextureUnitState::setTransformAnimation).

Parameters
 speed The number of complete anticlockwise revolutions per second (use -ve for clockwise)
Note
When using shader programs, you have to explicitely forward this property in the Parameter specification

scale

Sets the scaling factor applied to texture coordinates.

Format: scale <uScale> <vScale>

This method sets the scale element of the texture transformation, and is easier to use than setTextureTransform if you are combining translation, scaling and rotation in your texture transformation.

If you want to animate these values use Ogre::TextureUnitState::setTransformAnimation

Parameters
 uScale The value by which the texture is to be scaled horizontally. vScale The value by which the texture is to be scaled vertically.
Note
When using shader programs, you have to explicitely forward this property in the Parameter specification

wave_xform

Sets up a general time-relative texture modification effect.

Format: wave_xform <ttype> <waveType> <base> <frequency> <phase> <amplitude>
Example: wave_xform scale_x sine 1.0 0.2 0.0 5.0

This can be called multiple times for different values of ttype, but only the latest effect applies if called multiple time for the same ttype.

Parameters
 ttype The type of transform, either translate (scroll), scale (stretch) or rotate (spin). waveType The shape of the wave, see Ogre::WaveformType enum for details. base The base value for the function (range of output = {base, base + amplitude}). frequency The speed of the wave in cycles per second. phase The offset of the start of the wave, e.g. 0.5 to start half-way through the wave. amplitude Scales the output so that instead of lying within 0..1 it lies within 0..1*amplitude for exaggerated effects.

ttype is one of

scroll_x

Animate the u scroll value

scroll_y

Animate the v scroll value

rotate

Animate the rotate value

scale_x

Animate the u scale value

scale_y

Animate the v scale value

waveType is one of Ogre::WaveformType without the WFT_ prefix. E.g. WFT_SQUARE becomes square.

Note
When using shader programs, you have to explicitely forward this property in the Parameter specification

transform

This attribute allows you to specify a static 4x4 transformation matrix for the texture unit, thus replacing the individual scroll, rotate and scale attributes mentioned above.

Format: transform m00 m01 m02 m03 m10 m11 m12 m13 m20 m21 m22 m23 m30 m31 m32 m33

The indexes of the 4x4 matrix value above are expressed as m<row><col>.

Note
When using shader programs, you have to explicitely forward this property in the Parameter specification

sampler_ref

By default all texture units use a shared default Sampler object. This parameter allows you to explicitly set a different one.

Format: sampler_ref <name>
Example: sampler_ref mySampler

Samplers

Samplers allow you to quickly change the settings for all associated Textures. Typically you have many Textures but only a few sampling states in your application.

sampler mySampler
{
filtering bilinear
max_anisotropy 16
}
...
texture_unit
{
texture myTexture.dds
sampler_ref mySampler
}
...

Available parameters

Defines what happens when texture coordinates exceed 1.0 for this texture layer.You can use the simple format to specify the addressing mode for all 3 potential texture coordinates at once, or you can use the 2/3 parameter extended format to specify a different mode per texture coordinate.

Extended Format: tex_address_mode <u_mode> <v_mode> [<w_mode>]

Valid values for both are one of Ogre::TextureAddressingMode without the TAM_ prefix. E.g. TAM_WRAP becomes wrap.

tex_border_colour

Format: tex_border_colour <red> <green> <blue> [<alpha>]
NB valid colour values are between 0.0 and 1.0.
Example: tex_border_colour 0.0 1.0 0.3
Default: tex_border_colour 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0

filtering

Sets the type of texture filtering used when magnifying or minifying a texture. There are 2 formats to this attribute, the simple format where you simply specify the name of a predefined set of filtering options, and the complex format, where you individually set the minification, magnification, and mip filters yourself.

Simple Format

With this format, you only need to provide a single parameter

Format: filtering <none|bilinear|trilinear|anisotropic>
Default: filtering bilinear
none

No filtering or mipmapping is used. Equal to: min=Ogre::FO_POINT, mag=Ogre::FO_POINT, mip=Ogre::FO_NONE

bilinear

2x2 box filtering is performed when magnifying or reducing a texture, and a mipmap is picked from the list but no filtering is done between the levels of the mipmaps. Equal to: min=Ogre::FO_LINEAR, mag=Ogre::FO_LINEAR, mip=Ogre::FO_POINT

trilinear

2x2 box filtering is performed when magnifying and reducing a texture, and the closest 2 mipmaps are filtered together. Equal to: min=Ogre::FO_LINEAR, mag=Ogre::FO_LINEAR, mip=Ogre::FO_LINEAR

anisotropic

This is the same as ’trilinear’, except the filtering algorithm takes account of the slope of the triangle in relation to the camera rather than simply doing a 2x2 pixel filter in all cases. Equal to: min=Ogre::FO_ANISOTROPIC, max=Ogre::FO_ANISOTROPIC, mip=Ogre::FO_LINEAR

Complex Format

This format gives you complete control over the minification, magnification, and mip filters.

Format: filtering <minFilter> <magFilter> <mipFilter>
Default: filtering linear linear point

Each parameter can be one of Ogre::FilterOptions without the FO_ prefix. E.g. FO_LINEAR becomes linear.

Parameters
 minFilter The filtering to use when reducing the size of the texture. Can be Ogre::FO_POINT, Ogre::FO_LINEAR or Ogre::FO_ANISOTROPIC. magFilter The filtering to use when increasing the size of the texture. Can be Ogre::FO_POINT, Ogre::FO_LINEAR or Ogre::FO_ANISOTROPIC. mipFilter The filtering to use between mip levels. Can be Ogre::FO_NONE (turns off mipmapping), Ogre::FO_POINT or Ogre::FO_LINEAR (trilinear filtering).

max_anisotropy

Sets the anisotropy level to be used for this texture level.

Format: max_anisotropy <maxAniso>
Default: max_anisotropy 1

The degree of anisotropy is the ratio between the height of the texture segment visible in a screen space region versus the width - so for example a floor plane, which stretches on into the distance and thus the vertical texture coordinates change much faster than the horizontal ones, has a higher anisotropy than a wall which is facing you head on (which has an anisotropy of 1 if your line of sight is perfectly perpendicular to it).The maximum value is determined by the hardware, but it is usually 8 or 16.

In order for this to be used, you have to set the minification and/or the magnification option on this texture to Ogre::FO_ANISOTROPIC.

Parameters
 maxAniso The maximal anisotropy level, should be between 2 and the maximum supported by hardware (1 is the default, ie. no anisotrophy).

mipmap_bias

You can alter the mipmap calculation by biasing the result with a single floating point value. After the mip level has been calculated, this bias value is added to the result to give the final mip level. Lower mip levels are larger (higher detail), so a negative bias will force the larger mip levels to be used, and a positive bias will cause smaller mip levels to be used. The bias values are in mip levels, so a -1 bias will force mip levels one larger than by the default calculation.

In order for this option to be used, your hardware has to support mipmap biasing (exposed through Ogre::RSC_MIPMAP_LOD_BIAS), and your minification filtering has to be set to point or linear.

Format: mipmap_bias <value>
Default: mipmap_bias 0

compare_test

Enables or disables the comparison test for depth textures. When enabled, sampling the texture returns how the sampled value compares against a reference value instead of the sampled value itself. Combined with linear filtering this can be used to implement hardware PCF for shadow maps.

Format: compare_test on
Default: compare_test off

comp_func

The comparison func to use when compare_test is enabled

Format: comp_func <func>
Parameters
 func one of Ogre::CompareFunction without the CMPF_ prefix. E.g. CMPF_LESS_EQUAL becomes less_equal.

Using GPU Programs in a Pass

Within a pass section of a material script, you can reference a vertex, geometry and / or a fragment program which is been defined in a .program script (See GPU Program Scripts). The programs are defined separately from the usage of them in the pass, since the programs are very likely to be reused between many separate materials, probably across many different .material scripts, so this approach lets you define the program only once and use it many times.

As well as naming the program in question, you can also provide parameters to it. Here’s a simple example:

vertex_program_ref myVertexProgram
{
param_indexed_auto 0 worldviewproj_matrix
param_indexed 4 float4 10.0 0 0 0
}

In this example, we bind a vertex program called ’myVertexProgram’ (which will be defined elsewhere) to the pass, and give it 2 parameters, one is an ’auto’ parameter, meaning we do not have to supply a value as such, just a recognised code (in this case it’s the world/view/projection matrix which is kept up to date automatically by Ogre). The second parameter is a manually specified parameter, a 4-element float. The indexes are described later.

The syntax of the link to a vertex program and a fragment or geometry program are identical, the only difference is that ’fragment_program_ref’ and ’geometry_program_ref’ are used respectively instead of ’vertex_program_ref’.

For many situations vertex, geometry and fragment programs are associated with each other in a pass but this is not cast in stone. You could have a vertex program that can be used by several different fragment programs. Another situation that arises is that you can mix fixed pipeline and programmable pipeline (shaders) together. You could use the non-programmable vertex fixed function pipeline and then provide a fragment_program_ref in a pass i.e. there would be no vertex_program_ref section in the pass. The fragment program referenced in the pass must meet the requirements as defined in the related API in order to read from the outputs of the vertex fixed pipeline. You could also just have a vertex program that outputs to the fragment fixed function pipeline.

The requirements to read from or write to the fixed function pipeline are similar between rendering API’s (DirectX and OpenGL) but how its actually done in each type of shader (vertex, geometry or fragment) depends on the shader language. For HLSL (DirectX API) and associated asm consult MSDN at http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/. For GLSL (OpenGL), consult section 7.6 of the GLSL spec 1.1 available at http://www.opengl.org/registry/. The built in varying variables provided in GLSL allow your program to read/write to the fixed function pipeline varyings. For Cg consult the Language Profiles section in CgUsersManual.pdf that comes with the Cg Toolkit available at https://developer.nvidia.com/cg-toolkit. For HLSL and Cg its the varying bindings that allow your shader programs to read/write to the fixed function pipeline varyings.

Adding new Techniques, Passes, to copied materials

If a new technique or pass needs to be added to a copied material then use a unique name for the technique or pass that does not exist in the parent material. Using an index for the name that is one greater than the last index in the parent will do the same thing. The new technique/pass will be added to the end of the techniques/passes copied from the parent material.

Note
if passes or techniques aren’t given a name, they will take on a default name based on their index. For example the first pass has index 0 so its name will be 0.

Identifying Texture Units to override values

A specific texture unit state (TUS) can be given a unique name within a pass of a material so that it can be identified later in cloned materials that need to override specified texture unit states in the pass without declaring previous texture units. Using a unique name for a Texture unit in a pass of a cloned material adds a new texture unit at the end of the texture unit list for the pass.

material BumpMap2 : BumpMap1
{
technique ati8500
{
pass 0
{
texture_unit NormalMap
{
texture BumpyMetalNM.png
}
}
}
}