OGRE  1.12.4
Object-Oriented Graphics Rendering Engine
Ogre::SubEntity Class Reference

Utility class which defines the sub-parts of an Entity. More...

#include <OgreSubEntity.h>

+ Inheritance diagram for Ogre::SubEntity:

Public Types

typedef SharedPtr< RenderSystemDataRenderSystemDataPtr
 

Public Member Functions

bool _getBuffersMarkedForAnimation (void) const
 Are buffers already marked as vertex animated? More...
 
VertexData_getHardwareVertexAnimVertexData (void)
 Advanced method to get the hardware morph vertex information. More...
 
TempBlendedBufferInfo_getSkelAnimTempBufferInfo (void)
 Advanced method to get the temp buffer information for software skeletal animation. More...
 
VertexData_getSkelAnimVertexData (void)
 Advanced method to get the temporarily blended vertex information for entities which are software skinned. More...
 
VertexData_getSoftwareVertexAnimVertexData (void)
 Advanced method to get the temporarily blended software morph vertex information. More...
 
TempBlendedBufferInfo_getVertexAnimTempBufferInfo (void)
 Advanced method to get the temp buffer information for software morph animation. More...
 
void _invalidateCameraCache ()
 Invalidate the camera distance cache. More...
 
void _markBuffersUnusedForAnimation (void)
 Mark all vertex data as so far unanimated. More...
 
void _markBuffersUsedForAnimation (void)
 Mark all vertex data as animated. More...
 
void _restoreBuffersForUnusedAnimation (bool hardwareAnimation)
 Internal method to copy original vertex data to the morph structures should there be no active animation in use. More...
 
void _updateCustomGpuParameter (const GpuProgramParameters::AutoConstantEntry &constantEntry, GpuProgramParameters *params) const override
 Overridden from Renderable to provide some custom behaviour. More...
 
bool getCastsShadows (void) const override
 Method which reports whether this renderable would normally cast a shadow. More...
 
const Vector4getCustomParameter (size_t index) const
 Gets the custom value associated with this Renderable at the given index. More...
 
size_t getIndexDataEndIndex () const
 Returns the current value of the start index used for drawing. More...
 
size_t getIndexDataStartIndex () const
 Returns the current value of the start index used for drawing. More...
 
const LightListgetLights (void) const override
 Gets a list of lights, ordered relative to how close they are to this renderable. More...
 
const MaterialPtrgetMaterial (void) const override
 Retrieves a weak reference to the material this renderable object uses. More...
 
const StringgetMaterialName () const
 Gets the name of the Material in use by this instance. More...
 
unsigned short getNumWorldTransforms (void) const override
 Returns the number of world transform matrices this renderable requires. More...
 
EntitygetParent (void) const
 Accessor to get parent Entity. More...
 
bool getPolygonModeOverrideable (void) const
 Gets whether this renderable's chosen detail level can be overridden (downgraded) by the camera setting. More...
 
void getRenderOperation (RenderOperation &op) override
 Gets the render operation required to send this object to the frame buffer. More...
 
uint8 getRenderQueueGroup (void) const
 Gets the queue group for this entity, see setRenderQueueGroup for full details. More...
 
ushort getRenderQueuePriority (void) const
 Gets the queue group for this entity, see setRenderQueueGroup for full details. More...
 
const RenderSystemDataPtrgetRenderSystemData () const
 Gets RenderSystem private data. More...
 
Real getSquaredViewDepth (const Camera *cam) const override
 Returns the camera-relative squared depth of this renderable. More...
 
SubMeshgetSubMesh (void)
 Accessor method to read mesh data. More...
 
TechniquegetTechnique (void) const override
 Retrieves a pointer to the Material Technique this renderable object uses. More...
 
bool getUseIdentityProjection (void) const
 Returns whether or not to use an 'identity' projection. More...
 
bool getUseIdentityView (void) const
 Returns whether or not to use an 'identity' view. More...
 
const AnygetUserAny (void) const
 
UserObjectBindingsgetUserObjectBindings ()
 Return an instance of user objects binding associated with this class. More...
 
const UserObjectBindingsgetUserObjectBindings () const
 Return an instance of user objects binding associated with this class. More...
 
VertexDatagetVertexDataForBinding (void)
 Retrieve the VertexData which should be used for GPU binding. More...
 
void getWorldTransforms (Matrix4 *xform) const override
 Gets the world transform matrix / matrices for this renderable object. More...
 
bool hasCustomParameter (size_t index) const
 Checks whether a custom value is associated with this Renderable at the given index. More...
 
bool isRenderQueueGroupSet (void) const
 Gets the queue group for this entity, see setRenderQueueGroup for full details. More...
 
bool isRenderQueuePrioritySet (void) const
 Gets the queue group for this entity, see setRenderQueueGroup for full details. More...
 
bool isVisible (void) const
 Returns whether or not this SubEntity is supposed to be visible. More...
 
virtual void postRender (SceneManager *sm, RenderSystem *rsys)
 Called immediately after the Renderable has been rendered. More...
 
virtual bool preRender (SceneManager *sm, RenderSystem *rsys)
 Called just prior to the Renderable being rendered. More...
 
void removeCustomParameter (size_t index)
 Removes a custom value which is associated with this Renderable at the given index. More...
 
void resetIndexDataStartEndIndex ()
 Reset the custom start/end index to the default values. More...
 
void setCustomParameter (size_t index, const Vector4 &value)
 Sets a custom parameter for this Renderable, which may be used to drive calculations for this specific Renderable, like GPU program parameters. More...
 
void setIndexDataEndIndex (size_t end_index)
 Tells this SubEntity to draw a subset of the SubMesh by adjusting the index buffer extents. More...
 
void setIndexDataStartIndex (size_t start_index)
 Tells this SubEntity to draw a subset of the SubMesh by adjusting the index buffer extents. More...
 
void setMaterial (const MaterialPtr &material)
 Sets the name of the Material to be used. More...
 
void setMaterialName (const String &name, const String &groupName=ResourceGroupManager::AUTODETECT_RESOURCE_GROUP_NAME)
 Sets the name of the Material to be used. More...
 
void setPolygonModeOverrideable (bool override)
 Sets whether this renderable's chosen detail level can be overridden (downgraded) by the camera setting. More...
 
void setRenderQueueGroup (uint8 queueID)
 Sets the render queue group this SubEntity will be rendered through. More...
 
void setRenderQueueGroupAndPriority (uint8 queueID, ushort priority)
 Sets the render queue group and group priority this SubEntity will be rendered through. More...
 
void setRenderSystemData (RenderSystemDataPtr val) const
 Sets RenderSystem private data. More...
 
void setUseIdentityProjection (bool useIdentityProjection)
 Sets whether or not to use an 'identity' projection. More...
 
void setUseIdentityView (bool useIdentityView)
 Sets whether or not to use an 'identity' view. More...
 
void setUserAny (const Any &anything)
 
void setVisible (bool visible)
 Tells this SubEntity whether to be visible or not. More...
 

Friends

class Entity
 
class SceneManager
 

Detailed Description

Utility class which defines the sub-parts of an Entity.

Remarks
Just as meshes are split into submeshes, an Entity is made up of potentially multiple SubMeshes. These are mainly here to provide the link between the Material which the SubEntity uses (which may be the default Material for the SubMesh or may have been changed for this object) and the SubMesh data.
The SubEntity also allows the application some flexibility in the material properties for this section of a particular instance of this Mesh, e.g. tinting the windows on a car model.
SubEntity instances are never created manually. They are created at the same time as their parent Entity by the SceneManager method createEntity.

Member Typedef Documentation

◆ RenderSystemDataPtr

Member Function Documentation

◆ getMaterialName()

const String& Ogre::SubEntity::getMaterialName ( ) const

Gets the name of the Material in use by this instance.

◆ setMaterialName()

void Ogre::SubEntity::setMaterialName ( const String name,
const String groupName = ResourceGroupManager::AUTODETECT_RESOURCE_GROUP_NAME 
)

Sets the name of the Material to be used.

Remarks
By default a SubEntity uses the default Material that the SubMesh uses. This call can alter that so that the Material is different for this instance.

◆ setMaterial()

void Ogre::SubEntity::setMaterial ( const MaterialPtr material)

Sets the name of the Material to be used.

Remarks
By default a SubEntity uses the default Material that the SubMesh uses. This call can alter that so that the Material is different for this instance.

◆ setVisible()

void Ogre::SubEntity::setVisible ( bool  visible)

Tells this SubEntity whether to be visible or not.

◆ isVisible()

bool Ogre::SubEntity::isVisible ( void  ) const
inline

Returns whether or not this SubEntity is supposed to be visible.

◆ setRenderQueueGroup()

void Ogre::SubEntity::setRenderQueueGroup ( uint8  queueID)

Sets the render queue group this SubEntity will be rendered through.

Remarks
Render queues are grouped to allow you to more tightly control the ordering of rendered objects. If you do not call this method, the SubEntity will use either the Entity's queue or it will use the default (RenderQueue::getDefaultQueueGroup).
See Entity::setRenderQueueGroup for more details.
Parameters
queueIDEnumerated value of the queue group to use. See the enum RenderQueueGroupID for what kind of values can be used here.

◆ setRenderQueueGroupAndPriority()

void Ogre::SubEntity::setRenderQueueGroupAndPriority ( uint8  queueID,
ushort  priority 
)

Sets the render queue group and group priority this SubEntity will be rendered through.

Remarks
Render queues are grouped to allow you to more tightly control the ordering of rendered objects. Within a single render group there another type of grouping called priority which allows further control. If you do not call this method, all Entity objects default to the default queue and priority (RenderQueue::getDefaultQueueGroup, RenderQueue::getDefaultRenderablePriority).
See Entity::setRenderQueueGroupAndPriority for more details.
Parameters
queueIDEnumerated value of the queue group to use. See the enum RenderQueueGroupID for what kind of values can be used here.
priorityThe priority within a group to use.

◆ getRenderQueueGroup()

uint8 Ogre::SubEntity::getRenderQueueGroup ( void  ) const
inline

Gets the queue group for this entity, see setRenderQueueGroup for full details.

◆ getRenderQueuePriority()

ushort Ogre::SubEntity::getRenderQueuePriority ( void  ) const
inline

Gets the queue group for this entity, see setRenderQueueGroup for full details.

◆ isRenderQueueGroupSet()

bool Ogre::SubEntity::isRenderQueueGroupSet ( void  ) const
inline

Gets the queue group for this entity, see setRenderQueueGroup for full details.

◆ isRenderQueuePrioritySet()

bool Ogre::SubEntity::isRenderQueuePrioritySet ( void  ) const
inline

Gets the queue group for this entity, see setRenderQueueGroup for full details.

◆ getSubMesh()

SubMesh* Ogre::SubEntity::getSubMesh ( void  )

Accessor method to read mesh data.

◆ getParent()

Entity* Ogre::SubEntity::getParent ( void  ) const
inline

Accessor to get parent Entity.

◆ getMaterial()

const MaterialPtr& Ogre::SubEntity::getMaterial ( void  ) const
inlineoverridevirtual

Retrieves a weak reference to the material this renderable object uses.

Remarks
Note that the Renderable also has the option to override the getTechnique method to specify a particular Technique to use instead of the best one available.

Implements Ogre::Renderable.

◆ getTechnique()

Technique* Ogre::SubEntity::getTechnique ( void  ) const
overridevirtual

Retrieves a pointer to the Material Technique this renderable object uses.

Remarks
This is to allow Renderables to use a chosen Technique if they wish, otherwise they will use the best Technique available for the Material they are using.

Reimplemented from Ogre::Renderable.

◆ getRenderOperation()

void Ogre::SubEntity::getRenderOperation ( RenderOperation op)
overridevirtual

Gets the render operation required to send this object to the frame buffer.

Implements Ogre::Renderable.

◆ setIndexDataStartIndex()

void Ogre::SubEntity::setIndexDataStartIndex ( size_t  start_index)

Tells this SubEntity to draw a subset of the SubMesh by adjusting the index buffer extents.

Default value is zero so that the entire index buffer is used when drawing. Valid values are zero to getIndexDataEndIndex()

◆ getIndexDataStartIndex()

size_t Ogre::SubEntity::getIndexDataStartIndex ( ) const

Returns the current value of the start index used for drawing.

See also
setIndexDataStartIndex

◆ setIndexDataEndIndex()

void Ogre::SubEntity::setIndexDataEndIndex ( size_t  end_index)

Tells this SubEntity to draw a subset of the SubMesh by adjusting the index buffer extents.

Default value is SubMesh::indexData::indexCount so that the entire index buffer is used when drawing. Valid values are mStartIndex to SubMesh::indexData::indexCount

◆ getIndexDataEndIndex()

size_t Ogre::SubEntity::getIndexDataEndIndex ( ) const

Returns the current value of the start index used for drawing.

◆ resetIndexDataStartEndIndex()

void Ogre::SubEntity::resetIndexDataStartEndIndex ( )

Reset the custom start/end index to the default values.

◆ getWorldTransforms()

void Ogre::SubEntity::getWorldTransforms ( Matrix4 xform) const
overridevirtual

Gets the world transform matrix / matrices for this renderable object.

Remarks
If the object has any derived transforms, these are expected to be up to date as long as all the SceneNode structures have been updated before this is called.
This method will populate transform with 1 matrix if it does not use vertex blending. If it does use vertex blending it will fill the passed in pointer with an array of matrices, the length being the value returned from getNumWorldTransforms.
Note
Internal Ogre never supports non-affine matrix for world transform matrix/matrices, the behavior is undefined if returns non-affine matrix here.

Implements Ogre::Renderable.

◆ getNumWorldTransforms()

unsigned short Ogre::SubEntity::getNumWorldTransforms ( void  ) const
overridevirtual

Returns the number of world transform matrices this renderable requires.

Remarks
When a renderable uses vertex blending, it uses multiple world matrices instead of a single one. Each vertex sent to the pipeline can reference one or more matrices in this list with given weights. If a renderable does not use vertex blending this method returns 1, which is the default for simplicity.

Reimplemented from Ogre::Renderable.

◆ getSquaredViewDepth()

Real Ogre::SubEntity::getSquaredViewDepth ( const Camera cam) const
overridevirtual

Returns the camera-relative squared depth of this renderable.

Remarks
Used to sort transparent objects. Squared depth is used rather than actual depth to avoid having to perform a square root on the result.

Implements Ogre::Renderable.

◆ getLights()

const LightList& Ogre::SubEntity::getLights ( void  ) const
overridevirtual

Gets a list of lights, ordered relative to how close they are to this renderable.

Remarks
Directional lights, which have no position, will always be first on this list.

Implements Ogre::Renderable.

◆ getCastsShadows()

bool Ogre::SubEntity::getCastsShadows ( void  ) const
overridevirtual

Method which reports whether this renderable would normally cast a shadow.

Remarks
Subclasses should override this if they could have been used to generate a shadow.

Reimplemented from Ogre::Renderable.

◆ _getSkelAnimVertexData()

VertexData* Ogre::SubEntity::_getSkelAnimVertexData ( void  )

Advanced method to get the temporarily blended vertex information for entities which are software skinned.

Remarks
Internal engine will eliminate software animation if possible, this information is unreliable unless added request for software animation via Entity::addSoftwareAnimationRequest.
Note
The positions/normals of the returned vertex data is in object space.

◆ _getSoftwareVertexAnimVertexData()

VertexData* Ogre::SubEntity::_getSoftwareVertexAnimVertexData ( void  )

Advanced method to get the temporarily blended software morph vertex information.

Remarks
Internal engine will eliminate software animation if possible, this information is unreliable unless added request for software animation via Entity::addSoftwareAnimationRequest.
Note
The positions/normals of the returned vertex data is in object space.

◆ _getHardwareVertexAnimVertexData()

VertexData* Ogre::SubEntity::_getHardwareVertexAnimVertexData ( void  )

Advanced method to get the hardware morph vertex information.

Note
The positions/normals of the returned vertex data is in object space.

◆ _getSkelAnimTempBufferInfo()

TempBlendedBufferInfo* Ogre::SubEntity::_getSkelAnimTempBufferInfo ( void  )

Advanced method to get the temp buffer information for software skeletal animation.

◆ _getVertexAnimTempBufferInfo()

TempBlendedBufferInfo* Ogre::SubEntity::_getVertexAnimTempBufferInfo ( void  )

Advanced method to get the temp buffer information for software morph animation.

◆ getVertexDataForBinding()

VertexData* Ogre::SubEntity::getVertexDataForBinding ( void  )

Retrieve the VertexData which should be used for GPU binding.

◆ _markBuffersUnusedForAnimation()

void Ogre::SubEntity::_markBuffersUnusedForAnimation ( void  )

Mark all vertex data as so far unanimated.

◆ _markBuffersUsedForAnimation()

void Ogre::SubEntity::_markBuffersUsedForAnimation ( void  )

Mark all vertex data as animated.

◆ _getBuffersMarkedForAnimation()

bool Ogre::SubEntity::_getBuffersMarkedForAnimation ( void  ) const
inline

Are buffers already marked as vertex animated?

◆ _restoreBuffersForUnusedAnimation()

void Ogre::SubEntity::_restoreBuffersForUnusedAnimation ( bool  hardwareAnimation)

Internal method to copy original vertex data to the morph structures should there be no active animation in use.

◆ _updateCustomGpuParameter()

void Ogre::SubEntity::_updateCustomGpuParameter ( const GpuProgramParameters::AutoConstantEntry constantEntry,
GpuProgramParameters params 
) const
overridevirtual

Overridden from Renderable to provide some custom behaviour.

Reimplemented from Ogre::Renderable.

◆ _invalidateCameraCache()

void Ogre::SubEntity::_invalidateCameraCache ( )
inline

Invalidate the camera distance cache.

◆ preRender()

virtual bool Ogre::Renderable::preRender ( SceneManager sm,
RenderSystem rsys 
)
inlinevirtualinherited

Called just prior to the Renderable being rendered.

Remarks
OGRE is a queued renderer, so the actual render commands are executed at a later time than the point at which an object is discovered to be visible. This allows ordering & grouping of renders without the discovery process having to be aware of it. It also means OGRE uses declarative render information rather than immediate mode rendering - this is very useful in that certain effects and processes can automatically be applied to a wide range of scenes, but the downside is that special cases are more difficult to handle, because there is not the declared state to cope with it.
This method allows a Renderable to do something special at the actual point of rendering if it wishes to. When this method is called, all the material render state as declared by this Renderable has already been set, all that is left to do is to bind the buffers and perform the render. The Renderable may modify render state itself if it wants to (and restore it in the postRender call) before the automated render happens, or by returning 'false' from this method can actually suppress the automatic render and perform one of its own.
Returns
true if the automatic render should proceed, false to skip it on the assumption that the Renderable has done it manually.

Reimplemented in Ogre::BillboardChain.

◆ postRender()

virtual void Ogre::Renderable::postRender ( SceneManager sm,
RenderSystem rsys 
)
inlinevirtualinherited

Called immediately after the Renderable has been rendered.

◆ setUseIdentityProjection()

void Ogre::Renderable::setUseIdentityProjection ( bool  useIdentityProjection)
inlineinherited

Sets whether or not to use an 'identity' projection.

Remarks
Usually Renderable objects will use a projection matrix as determined by the active camera. However, if they want they can cancel this out and use an identity projection, which effectively projects in 2D using a {-1, 1} view space. Useful for overlay rendering. Normal renderables need not change this. The default is false.
See also
Renderable::getUseIdentityProjection

◆ getUseIdentityProjection()

bool Ogre::Renderable::getUseIdentityProjection ( void  ) const
inlineinherited

Returns whether or not to use an 'identity' projection.

Remarks
Usually Renderable objects will use a projection matrix as determined by the active camera. However, if they want they can cancel this out and use an identity projection, which effectively projects in 2D using a {-1, 1} view space. Useful for overlay rendering. Normal renderables need not change this.
See also
Renderable::setUseIdentityProjection

◆ setUseIdentityView()

void Ogre::Renderable::setUseIdentityView ( bool  useIdentityView)
inlineinherited

Sets whether or not to use an 'identity' view.

Remarks
Usually Renderable objects will use a view matrix as determined by the active camera. However, if they want they can cancel this out and use an identity matrix, which means all geometry is assumed to be relative to camera space already. Useful for overlay rendering. Normal renderables need not change this. The default is false.
See also
Renderable::getUseIdentityView

◆ getUseIdentityView()

bool Ogre::Renderable::getUseIdentityView ( void  ) const
inlineinherited

Returns whether or not to use an 'identity' view.

Remarks
Usually Renderable objects will use a view matrix as determined by the active camera. However, if they want they can cancel this out and use an identity matrix, which means all geometry is assumed to be relative to camera space already. Useful for overlay rendering. Normal renderables need not change this.
See also
Renderable::setUseIdentityView

◆ setCustomParameter()

void Ogre::Renderable::setCustomParameter ( size_t  index,
const Vector4 value 
)
inlineinherited

Sets a custom parameter for this Renderable, which may be used to drive calculations for this specific Renderable, like GPU program parameters.

Remarks
Calling this method simply associates a numeric index with a 4-dimensional value for this specific Renderable. This is most useful if the material which this Renderable uses a vertex or fragment program, and has an ACT_CUSTOM parameter entry. This parameter entry can refer to the index you specify as part of this call, thereby mapping a custom parameter for this renderable to a program parameter.
Parameters
indexThe index with which to associate the value. Note that this does not have to start at 0, and can include gaps. It also has no direct correlation with a GPU program parameter index - the mapping between the two is performed by the ACT_CUSTOM entry, if that is used.
valueThe value to associate.

◆ removeCustomParameter()

void Ogre::Renderable::removeCustomParameter ( size_t  index)
inlineinherited

Removes a custom value which is associated with this Renderable at the given index.

Parameters
indexIndex of the parameter to remove.
See also
setCustomParameter for full details.

◆ hasCustomParameter()

bool Ogre::Renderable::hasCustomParameter ( size_t  index) const
inlineinherited

Checks whether a custom value is associated with this Renderable at the given index.

Parameters
indexIndex of the parameter to check for existence.
See also
setCustomParameter for full details.

◆ getCustomParameter()

const Vector4& Ogre::Renderable::getCustomParameter ( size_t  index) const
inlineinherited

Gets the custom value associated with this Renderable at the given index.

Parameters
indexIndex of the parameter to retrieve.
See also
setCustomParameter for full details.

References Ogre::Exception::ERR_ITEM_NOT_FOUND, and OGRE_EXCEPT.

◆ setPolygonModeOverrideable()

void Ogre::Renderable::setPolygonModeOverrideable ( bool  override)
inlineinherited

Sets whether this renderable's chosen detail level can be overridden (downgraded) by the camera setting.

Parameters
overridetrue means that a lower camera detail will override this renderables detail level, false means it won't.

◆ getPolygonModeOverrideable()

bool Ogre::Renderable::getPolygonModeOverrideable ( void  ) const
inlineinherited

Gets whether this renderable's chosen detail level can be overridden (downgraded) by the camera setting.

Referenced by Ogre::BorderRenderable::getPolygonModeOverrideable().

◆ setUserAny()

void Ogre::Renderable::setUserAny ( const Any anything)
inlineinherited
Deprecated:
use UserObjectBindings::setUserAny via getUserObjectBindings() instead.

Sets any kind of user value on this object.

Remarks
This method allows you to associate any user value you like with this Renderable. This can be a pointer back to one of your own classes for instance.

Referenced by Ogre::InstanceBatch::getRenderOperation().

◆ getUserAny()

const Any& Ogre::Renderable::getUserAny ( void  ) const
inlineinherited
Deprecated:
use UserObjectBindings::getUserAny via getUserObjectBindings() instead.

Retrieves the custom user value associated with this object.

Referenced by Ogre::InstanceBatch::getRenderOperation().

◆ getUserObjectBindings() [1/2]

UserObjectBindings& Ogre::Renderable::getUserObjectBindings ( )
inlineinherited

Return an instance of user objects binding associated with this class.

You can use it to associate one or more custom objects with this class instance.

See also
UserObjectBindings::setUserAny.

◆ getUserObjectBindings() [2/2]

const UserObjectBindings& Ogre::Renderable::getUserObjectBindings ( ) const
inlineinherited

Return an instance of user objects binding associated with this class.

You can use it to associate one or more custom objects with this class instance.

See also
UserObjectBindings::setUserAny.

◆ getRenderSystemData()

const RenderSystemDataPtr& Ogre::Renderable::getRenderSystemData ( ) const
inlineinherited

Gets RenderSystem private data.

Remarks
This should only be used by a RenderSystem

◆ setRenderSystemData()

void Ogre::Renderable::setRenderSystemData ( RenderSystemDataPtr  val) const
inlineinherited

Sets RenderSystem private data.

Remarks
This should only be used by a RenderSystem

Friends And Related Function Documentation

◆ Entity

friend class Entity
friend

◆ SceneManager

friend class SceneManager
friend

The documentation for this class was generated from the following file: